In America, during the 1980’s there was much interest in the area of Artificial Intelligence. The skepticism of the 1990’s, at which time the restrictions of abilities of our present computers were stressed followed the great expectations of the 1980’s.
The development of AIS is aimed toward the creation of new technologies that can provide solutions to issues in the areas of electronics and heavy industries, agriculture, energy and resource conservation, transport, human health, public safety, national security, as well as other disciplines.
Speaking in a seminar in Buenos Aires in 1995, Albert Arnold Gore, Jr. (Vice President of the United States from 1993-2001 under President Bill Clinton) remarked, ‘These highways, or more correctly, networks of distributed intelligence, will allow us to share advice, to connect, and to convey as a global community. From these connections we shall derive robust and sustainable economic progress, strong democracies, better solutions to global and local environmental challenges, improved health care, and ultimately, a greater awareness of shared stewardship of our little planet’.
From a historical point of view, AIS appeared as consequence of the development of person-machine systems, in which the functions of machine and man are interrelated for the operation of those systems in the past century. For instance, a craftsman operating the workers and machines, a driver and his running car, and also a working lathe at a power station form man-machine systems. In a man-machine system, the human operator furnishes the direction the target, and also the integration. Everything is executed by the machine according to the specified directions, and offers feedback.
In the process of man-machine systems evolution, the role of man has fell relative to the role of the machines he operates. To execute routine functions, machines have been increasingly equipped with management subsystems, and the ensuing man-machines systems were referred to as “semi automatic” systems.
Thanks an excellent change, to computer systems has taken place in several regions of technology during the last couple of decades. Previous machines had the job of executing jobs given to them by human beings. Now, these machines are equipped with quite innovative programmable control systems and assorted kinds of sensory devices, empowering them to execute many endeavors that were human, including creative problem solving. Meanwhile, scientists and engineers working on bionic technologies are getting closer to creating machines that may perform some functions that are human for individuals with handicaps. As a consequence, the preconditions for the arrival of artificial intelligence appeared.